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[阅读理解]阅读理解 Every Morning,Breanna Roque goes out to the farm to feed the cows

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更多 发布于:2020-05-21 22:23

Every Morning,Breanna Roque goes out to the farm to feed the cows.But this isn't your typical farm;it's a laboratory,and Roque is a graduate researcher at the University of California,Davis.She's been spending her time among the cows to see if she can adjust their diets so they burp (打嗝)less.The cows' special diet includes small parts of a red seaweed.It contains a chemical combination,which prevents the production of CH4 during the cows' digestion.Less CH4 means less burping.And less burping could mean slowing down climate change globally.

Although agriculture accounts for a smaller percentage of total greenhouse gas production than sectors like transportation and energy,it produces more CH4,which warms the Earth up to 86 times as much as CO2.When cows eat,they burp food back up,producing CH4 as a byproduct. Researchers across the globe have been pursuing the idea that adding substances to feed might help reduce these CH4-loaded burps.But it wasn't until 2016 that researchers in Australia found that grass feed of 2 percent seaweed could cut CH4 productions by nearly 99 percent.In 2019,Roque's team published the results of a similar study:They cut CH4 production 95 percent by adding to a typical U.S.dairy cow diet with just 5 percent seaweed.But questions remained about the seaweed's effectiveness in actual cow stomachs.

So more researchers headed to the farm.They found that a diet of just 0.5 percent seaweed led to a 26-percent decrease in CH4.A 1-percent seaweed diet produced 67 percent less CH4.Further research is needed to fully understand why this seaweed in particular works best-and to see if adding seaweed to cows' diets will affect the quality of the products coming from the animals.In the future,they'll run trials to see if seaweed gives cow's milk an unpleasant taste or leaves steaks smelling of seafood.

Researchers still need to ensure the seaweed combination,which is sensitive to heat and light, will be shelf-stable and remain effective in real-world applications.And even if the seaweed succeeds,CH4 from cattle accounts for just 5 percent of greenhouse gas production in the U.S.,so the overall picture won't improve much.

Still,last August,researchers at the University of the Sunshine Coast in Queensland,Australia, announced they would be trying to find ways to farm the seaweed on a large-enough scale to break into the cattle feed market.Roque says she's regularly contacted by annoying businessmen who want her help to mass produce the seaweed for global animal consumption."People reach out to me all the time,"she says."Unfortunately,I'm an animal biologist and not a sea biologist."

61.What is the purpose of Roque's research?

A.To reduce global warming through cow feed.

B.To enrich cattle diets with a special seaweed.

C.To make food digestible in cows'stomachs.

D.To reduce CH4 in the production of seaweed.

62.According to Paragraph 2,the 2016 and 2019 studies were imperfect as they failed to find out ___

A.why CH4 was more harmful than CO2 in climate change

B.which seaweed worked best in cutting CH4 production

C.whether seaweed would work in practical cow feeding

D.what was the right proportion of seaweed in cows' diets

63.Future research will probably NOT deal with___

A.how to grow seaweed on farmland economically

B.how to bring out the best function of the seaweed

C.how to prevent beef and milk from tasting weird

D.how to lengthen the store time of seaweed feed

64. Roque's response to the businessmen indicates that _

A.she regrets not having studied seaweeds

B.she is willing to offer more help to them

C.she is negative about the cow feed market

D.she is not interested in farming seaweed

C篇

每天早上,Breanna Roque都会去农场喂牛。但这不是你所理解的那种典型的农场;这是一个实验室, Roque是加州大学戴维斯分校的研究生。她一直在牛群中度过时光,看她是否可以调整饮食,以减少牛打嗝。奶牛的特殊饮食包括一小部分红海藻。它包含化学成分,可防止在牛消化过程中产生甲烷。更少的甲烷意味着更少的打嗝。减少打嗝可能意味着减缓全球气候变化。

尽管农业在温室气体总产量中所占的比例比起运输和能源等部门低,但它产生的甲烷却更多,它使地球变暖的程度高达二氧化碳的86倍。奶牛进食时,会将食物反刍,产生副产品甲烷。全球研究人员一直在追求这样的想法,即在饲料中添加物质可能有助于减少这些带有甲烷的嗝。但是直到2016年,澳大利亚的研究人员才发现含有2%的海藻草饲料能够将CH4的产量减少近99%。Roque的团队在2019年发表了一项类似研究的结果:他们通过在典型的美国奶牛日粮中仅添加5%的海藻,就将甲烷的产量减少了95%。但是,有关海藻在牛胃中的实际功效仍然存在疑问。

因此,更多的研究人员前往该农场。他们发现,仅食用0.5%的海藻可以使甲烷降低26%。 1%的海藻饮食可减少67%的甲烷。需要进一步研究以使我们充分理解为什么这种海藻尤其能发挥最佳功效,并观察将海藻添加到奶牛的饮食中是否会影响动物产品的质量。将来,他们将进行试验,以查看海藻是否会使牛乳产生令人不快的味道或使牛排闻起来有海鲜味。

研究人员仍然需要确保这些对热和光敏感的海藻化合物是稳定的产品,并在实际应用中保持有效。即使海藻成功,来自牛的甲烷仍仅占美国温室气体产量的5%,因此总体情况不会有太大改善。

尽管如此,去年八月,澳大利亚昆士兰州阳光海岸大学的研究人员宣布,他们将试图找到足够大的规模种植海藻的方法,以打入牛饲料市场。Roque说,她已经定期与希望与她联系的商人联系,希望她帮助他们大规模生产用于全球动物消费的海藻。她说:“人们一直与我联系。” “很遗憾,我是动物生物学家,而不是海洋生物学家。”

61. 选A。通过第一段It contains a chemical combination, which prevents the production of CH4 during the cows’ digestion. Less CH4 means less burping. And less burping could mean slowing down climate change globally.可知,Roque的研究是通过在牛饲料里添加海藻,以减少CH4的产生,牛可以少打嗝,从而达到减缓全球气候变化的目的。

62. 选C。由第二段But questions remained about the seaweed’s effectiveness in actual cow stomachs可知两个研究属于实验室理论研究,未开展实践,农场实际喂养中是否有效果未知。A、B、D选项内容在第二段未有涉及。

63. 选A。根据第三段中Further research is needed to fully understand why this seaweed in particular works best,以及第四段中...remain effective in real-world applications. 可知未来会研究如何发掘海藻的功效,使海藻饲料得以实际运用,B项正确。第三段中In the future, they’ll run trials to see if seaweed gives cow’s milk an unpleasant taste or leaves steaks smelling of seafood.可知C项正确。第四段中...which is sensitive to heat and light, will be shelf-stable,说明将来会研究延长新饲料的保质期,D项正确。

64. 选D。最后一段Roque says she’s regularly contacted by annoying businessmen who want her help to mass produce the seaweed for global animal consumption. “People reach out to me all the time,” she says. “Unfortunately, I’m an animal biologist and not a sea biologist.” 可推论出Roque对海藻的种植是没有兴趣的。

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